Sex is the biological and physical characteristics that define men and women. Females have breasts and a vagina, menstruate, produce eggs, and are capable of breast-feeding. Males have testicles and a penis, produce sperm and generally have more massive bones than women. Sex is not necessarily permanent and there are people who believe that they were born in the wrong body. Sex change operations are possible.
Gender is the socially constructed attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. To be feminine could be described as considerate, emotionally strong, nonviolent, caring, quiet and chatty (and more); to be masculine is often described as being powerful, financially successful, emotionally not expressive, and brave (and that is not all). Gender affects our self-image, our relations with others, the way we learn, the way we perceive our options, and the choices we make. Gender is variable across society, it is hierarchical, and can be changed. Transgender people identify with a different gender than the one with which they were reared.
Gender Roles/ Norms are the behaviors that are learned from infancy onwards about how to be male or female. They are not “natural” like sex, but are made up. A person is a combination of both masculine and feminine attributes, but people are forced by societal norms to be a certain way.
Girls are forced to conform to feminine roles such as to: be caregivers; be docile and submissive to males, underplay their intelligence, undervalue or withhold their opinions and ideas; accept having their rights limited; accept close monitoring of their dress, friendships, and their comings and goings; be careful not to hurt people’s feelings; avoid having sex before marriage, even if they wish to; and give in to having unwanted sex.
Boys often suffer pressure to prove their masculinity, for example, to: be brace and assertive; have money and prepare to become providers; suppress certain emotions (for example, vulnerability and tenderness) or behaviors that may appear “feminine”; engage in physical violence (against people they know or do not know); perform as an athlete and have a muscular body; avoid seeking health care, or even admitting that they are sick or have been harmed; and take physical risks (including with drugs, alcohol, or with a vehicle).
Gender Stereotypes are portrayed in the media
Both children’s stories and the media exert a powerful and wide-ranging influence on the gender norms and expectations of young people. Such media include radio, television, movies, newspapers, magazine, the Internet, and advertising
Media images and messages can promote and expose people to values of equality, respect, and dignity—or to those of disrespect and inequality. The media depicts men as heroes and women as victims and representing women in highly sexualized ways. Men also have the more visible and senior positions on news channels.
Fighting Discrimination with Gender Equality
Almosteveryone enjoys activities that do not align with the stereotypes of their gender. For example, girls enjoy sports, excel at math and science, and have goals of leading the country—and still feel like girls. Many, if not most, boys enjoy developing close friendships, creating art, and feel free from pressures to do brave and risky things—and still feel like boys.
makes everyone better off, as there are more opportunities to reach his or her full potential. Some families treat boys and girls equally. For example, both sons and daughters are encouraged and permitted to: seek success in the public sphere; express feelings of vulnerability; and share equally in household chores.If the household chores are shared than girls will be less likely to fall behind in school or leave the education system without any qualification.
Increasingly women are being educated and society is recognizing the value of women’s contribution to spheres outside the home. Yet still, women are paid significantly less than men for the same work, and are not encouraged to ask for promotions. This is because some girls are discouraged from being assertive.
But girls are not the only one’s to be discriminated against. Boys, especially from minority or marginalized groups or from low-income neighborhoods, may face harassment or brutality by police. Some boys face severe beating for relatively minor misbehavior. Girls tend to enjoy greater opportunity than boys to develop and practice one-to-one interpersonal skills.
How to Break Out of the System
Despite gender inequality, every day millions of individual seek to fulfill their dreams. Although everyone does not automatically enjoy the same opportunities they obtain.
Greater roles change over time, and in many settings people—especially young people—are embracing greater gender equality. Many young people resist conventional pressure to conform to an idealized body image or version of manhood. Many girls have confidence in themselves and their own power. They know they can fight for opportunities to work hard, achieve and pursue their dreams. Many boys feel free to express vulnerability and tenderness.
Emotional and physical pleasure are important parts of sexual well-being. Public health and rights organizations have issued declarations regarding the rights of all persons to sexual expression. These rights include the right to seek pleasure in the context of safety and of mutual and meaningful consent.
Sexual rights are constituted by a set of entitlements related to sexuality that emanate from the rights to freedom, equality, privacy, autonomy, integrity and dignity of all people. The ten sexual rights are:
Article 1 Right to equality, equal protection of the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination based on sex, sexuality or gender.
Article 2 The right to participation for all persons, regardless of sex, sexuality or gender.
Article 3 The rights to life, liberty, security of the person and bodily integrityand shall have the right to exercise their sexuality free of violence or coercion.
Article 4 Right to privacy.
Article 5 All persons have the right to be recognized before the law and to sexual freedom, and to choose their sexual partners, to seek to experience their full sexual potential and pleasure.
Article 6 Right to freedom of thought, opinion and expression; right to association.
Article 7 Right to health and to the benefits of scientific progress.
Article 8 Right to education and information.
Article 9 Right to choose whether or not to marry and to found and plan a family, and to decide whether or not, how and when, to have children.
Article 10 Right to accountability and redress.
There is wide variation in how we look and what we think, in our talents, and in our sexuality. This diversity of human experience exists everywhere. Discrimination against a person based on that person’s sexual identity, desire, or consensual behavior is a violation of human rights.
To enjoy safe and satisfying sexual lives, young people must be able to exercise their human rights. For example, everyone has a right to dignity, bodily safety, and access to health information and services. Only when people can exercise these rights can they really choose whether or not to have sex, negotiate condom and contraceptive use, and seek the services they need. Promoting sexual and reproductive rights also encourages young people to take responsibility for protecting the wellbeing and rights of others. Knowing about human rights allows young people to gain a sense that they matter in the world. Every young person needs access to health services as part of having a safe, responsible and healthy sex life.
Right to Health Services
All people have the right to health services that are accessible, affordable, and of good quality. People have a right to be treated respectfully and to maintain their privacy.
Millions of women and girls experience unintended pregnancies. These pregnancies occur for many reasons: because contraceptive was not available, was not used, was used incorrectly, or was used correctly but failed.
Women and girls have abortions for many reasons.
Abortion is safest early in pregnancy. When performed during the first half of pregnancy (as virtually all abortions are), it is much safer than having a baby. The two primary methods of induced abortion are by pill and by suction. In the first method, the woman takes a pill, which triggers cramping to expel the lining of uterus and with it, the embryo. The second method is the use of an instrument, which suctions the contents of the uterus, either the lining that hold the embryo or, in later abortions, the fetus.
Abortion is Legal in India
The MTP Act allows abortion. Pregnancies not exceeding 12 weeks may be terminated based on a single opinion. In the case of contraceptive failure, abortion is permitted. In case of pregnancies exceeding 12 weeks but less than 20 weeks, termination needs opinion of two doctors.
What is assertiveness?
To assert -- To state an opinion, claim a right, or establish authority. If one asserts, he/she behaves in a way that expresses your confidence, importance or power and earns respect from others. Assertiveness is standing up for your right to be treated fairly. It is expressing your opinions, needs, and feelings, without ignoring or hurting the opinions, needs, and feelings of others.
Because people want to be liked and thought of as 'nice' or 'easy to get along with', they often keep their opinions to themselves, especially if those opinions conflict with other people. But this sometimes leads to being taken advantage of by people who are not as nice or considerate. Asserting will stop others from cheating you and you from cheating yourself out of what you deserve.
Insist that your rights be respected - While you want to choose your battles carefully, you do have basic rights that you should feel comfortable standing up for.
A definition of sexual harassment is unwelcome attention of a sexual nature, occurring through verbal and/or physical interactionand/or non-verbal interaction.It can occur in any situation where one person (usually a man) has power over another (usually a woman). Harassment of a man by a female, although less common, is also a possibility.
Be willing to report crimes in your neighbourhood and school to the police. Call 100 in case of emergency or 103, which is the police helpline for women, children and senior citizens facing violence. There are different helplines all over the country, which provide immediate assistance and/or support. For example: Mumbai’s women’s helpline is 1298
Sexual Coercion and Gender Based Violence
Violence against women and girls, or against individuals who do not conform to dominant gender norms, is called gender-based violence. It reflects and reinforces cultural norms about masculinity and male control and dominance. Examples include:
Sexual coercion occurs when someone forces (or attempts to force) another individual to engage in sexual activity against his/her will. Sex is coercive if one person senses a lack of choice to refuse sex without facing significant social or physical consequences.
Females are particularly vulnerable to violence perpetrated by people they know, including their intimate male partners. Forced sex and rape can happen anywhere (including at home or within families and in intimate relationships, as well as in settings normally considered safe, such as schools and religious institutions.)
Here are some red flags of domestic violence:
Interpersonal relationships are social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. These include links with family members, friends, co-workers, neighbours, acquaintances, boyfriends and girlfriends, teachers, fellow participants, and others. For most people, having interpersonal relationships is an important part of being happy. Human relationships can fulfil various emotional, social, physical, intellectual, and economic needs. People’s relationships change as their culture changes, their age changes, and their identity changes. Openness, trust, communication, intimacy, sharing, power, respect, affection, and feeling may characterize different relationships.
People have various personal relationships, including loving relationships, throughout their lives. For most people, important early relationships are formed with members of their family. Children look to their parents or to other trusted adults or older family members for unconditional love. Families take many forms. Family members may, or may not, be biologically related. An extended family typically includes relatives other than those of the immediate family, and may include individuals who are not biologically related. Many families include one or more adopted children. Family members may live together in the same home or may be separated, either by choice or by circumstances.
Girl – Boy relationship
Many young people hesitate to develop friendship with a member of the opposite sex for fear of being misunderstood or rejected. A boy girl relationship is often, but not always accompanied by sexual attraction.
A mature boy – girl relationship is possible if the two individuals in the relationship can talk about sex freely and openly, discuss contraception options and safer sex and mutually consent for any activities. It includes mutual respect, open communication and lack of coercion, while viewing love as partnership and not ownership. And know that it is wrong to treat persons as sex objects.
Typically, “falling in love” involves feelings of passion, sexual attraction, and connection. Sometimes this feeling is called a “crush,” “romance,” or “infatuation.” A romantic relationship sometimes (although not always) involves feelings of commitment and intimacy. Falling in love can be a one-sided experience; the object of the love may not feel the same. Loving someone is caring deeply for that person and being committed to his or her well-being and happiness.
When people feel that a valued relationship is threatened, they may become jealous. Jealousy (in any kind of relationship, including a romantic one) refers to feelings of envy, possessiveness, vulnerability, anger, and resentment. Violence and coercion are demonstrations of power over another person. They always violate the human rights of the person they are used against, regardless of whether they express jealousy or other feelings. Both the person who feels jealous and his or her partner can benefit from talking honestly and respectfully about their feelings with each other. Each of them may also benefit from speaking with a trusted friend, adult, or counsellor.
Some of the reasons that people have sex though they do not want to:
Unfortunately, even in relationships, many people experience sexual coercion, abuse, or violence. Anyone may be subject to such abuse, although girls and women are more frequently the victims. Sexual abuse is harmful and always wrong. It is never the fault of the victim.
Hobbies are one way people experience pleasure. Hobbies are not just time-pass. Any hobby is welcome. Reading, sports, music, dancing, photography, cookery, and painting are popular hobbies today. We find pleasure in many things. Many find pleasure in spending time with family and friends.
Sexuality can be a source of great pleasure and meaning in life. However, people have responsibilities regarding their sexuality.
For example, these responsibilities include:
The use of drugs and alcohol can make it difficult to give clear consent. Alcohal and drugs impair the normal critical thinking and thought process, so that a person does not realize what they are aggreeing to. Impairment from substances also makes it difficult to take away consent or to ask to use contraception.
Any area of the body can respond to sexual stimuli. For example, a person may feel sexual pleasure from a touch to the face, stomach, nipples, ears, legs, or anywhere else. Each person has different responses, and each person’s response depends on the situation.Certain parts of the body that contribute to sexual pleasure are specific to males or to females:
The way the body actually responds to sexual stimulation involves various physiological processes. For Example:
What feels sexually pleasurable varies by person.
Sexual arousal may reach a peak or climax, called orgasm. Along with a feeling of euphoria, orgasm involves contraction and rease of muscles and secretion of fluid (ejaculate, with semen, in males; genital lubrication in females.)
A man with a large penis is sexually more potent than a man with a smaller one. The size of the penis and male sexual potency is unrelated. Male potency is a psycho-physiological process stimulated by erotic thoughts, touch, fantasy, etc. the erection of the penis is dependent on the nerves and blood that reach it.
A large penis is of greater importance to a woman’s sexual gratification as it can easily touch cervix. In a woman the outer one third of the vagina is sensitive to sexual pleasure. Even 5 to 7 cm of an erect penis can give sexual pleasure to a woman as the outer one third of the vagina (i.e. approximately 5 cm) is sensitive to such kind of pleasure. The gratification through the penis touching the surface of the cervix does not arise.
Sexual Intercourse hurtsfemales the first time
Sex can be uncomfortable when a woman is not sexually excited enough. The vagina excretes mucous to make sexual intercourse more comfortable, but it could take a few minutes of non-penetrative sexual activity to be ready. The hymen is a thin membrane that may stretch across part of the vaginal opening. The hymen can be easily torn during sports or other physical activity and can be stretched open if a girl uses tampons. Therefore, a torn or stretched hymen does not indicate that a girl or woman has engaged in sexual intercourse. Most of the time the hymen naturally withers away.
Sexuality refers to the way young people experience and express themselvesas sexual beings. Refers to awareness, experience and expression oferoticism, sexual pleasure, intimacy, sexual orientation and gender identity.
Sexual orientation refers to an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions to men, women, or both sexes. Sexual orientation also refers to a person's sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions. Research over several decades has demonstrated that sexual orientation ranges along a continuum, from exclusive attraction to the other sex to exclusive attraction to the same sex.
People express their sexual orientation through behaviors with others, including such simple actions as holding hands or kissing. Thus, sexual orientation is closely tied to the intimate personal relationships that meet deeply felt needs for love, attachment, and intimacy. In addition to sexual behaviors, these bonds include nonsexual physical affection between partners, shared goals and values, mutual support, and ongoing commitment.
What causes a person to have a specific sexual orientation?
Many think that nature and nurture both play complex roles; most people experience little or no sense of choice about their sexual orientation. Because of the stigma associated with same-sex attractions, many youths experience same-sex attraction for many years before becoming sexually active with partners of the same sex disclosing their attraction with others.
Boys are often permitted, or even pressured, to be sexually active, as long as their sexual desires are directed toward females. For example: Some boys are encouraged to, and may wish to, delay sexual activity. Often, however, they feel significant pressures to “prove their manhood” through early, repeated, and sometimes even aggressive, heterosexual experience.
Taking risks (including sexual ones) is commonly expected of boys and men in many settings. Girls may be discouraged or even punished for being sexually active. In most settings, girls receive contradictory messages about sex. Many are taught that they should not be sexually active prior to marriage. However, they are also expected to be sexually appealing and to prove their fertility. Girls are often socialized to be submissive to their boyfriends and husbands and to men in general. Certain expectations are placed on both boys and girls.
People — regardless of their sexual identity, gender, or physical ability — can express and experience their sexuality through a variety of sexual behaviors. One sexual practice is not better (or worse) than another — as long as the partners respect each other, take precautions, no one is harmed, and both partners fully consent.
Male Reproductive Organs and Puberty
A male child is born with external sex organs, the testes (located in a bag called the scrotum), and a penis, and internal sex organs that are the vasa deferentia (sperm ducts), seminal vesicles, epididymis, Cowper’s gland, and prostate.
For boys, puberty usually begins between the ages of 10 and 13, a couple of years later than it begins for girls. Boys typically finish puberty in their late teens or early twenties, when skeletal growth is complete.
Physical changes typically occur in this order:
Boys also experience a growth spurt and muscle growth.
What causes erections?
What happens during ejaculation?
Prior to ejaculation, the Cowper’s glands release a drop or two of fluid through the tip of the penis. This is called pre-ejaculate, and it cleans the urethra. The pre-ejaculate alone can contain a sufficient number of sperm strong enough to cause pregnancy.If a man has recently ejaculated, then sperm will still be present in the urethra, and could fertilize an ovum. HIV may be present in the pre-ejaculate, as well. Full ejaculation involves the release of semen, which typically contains hundreds of millions of sperm in a teaspoon of fluid. Usually, but not always, ejaculation comes with a wave of pleasurable release known as orgasm. Once a boy can ejaculate, he can cause a pregnancy.The body is constantly preparing semen and can produce it throughout life. There is no fixed quota of semen in the body of a male.
What are wet dreams?
Men regularly have erections during sleep, and about 80 percent of males occasionally ejaculate. This kind of ejaculation is called a nocturnal emission or “wet dream.” Wet dreams are common during puberty, but adult men may also have them. A boy or man who masturbates or has regular sex is less likely to have wet dreams. Wet dreams (and masturbation) are not harmful in any way. They may release tension and be a source of pleasure. Nor do wet dreams (or masturbation) “waste” sperm. The testes are continuously making new sperm, and wet dreams are one way the body rids itself of stored sperm.
Female Reproductive Organs and Puberty
A female child is born with internal and external reproductive organs. The internal reproductive organs include the ovaries, fallopian tube, uterus and vagina, while the external genitals include the vulva.
For girls, puberty begins between the ages of 8 and 13, about two years earlier than for boys. Girls typically finish puberty between the ages of 16 and 17 or around the time that their skeletal growth is complete.
Changes at puberty differ from person to person. Although they may vary in timing, sequence, and speed, girls’ bodies typically develop in this order:
Girls also experience:
The menstrual cycle is a result of the co-ordination of the working of ovary and uterus. Hormones from pituitary glands and the ovaries regulate the cycle. Usually one mature ovum (egg) is released from one ovary at an interval of four weeks or about 2 weeks after the previous menstrual period. It is drawn into the fallopian tube.
Each month the inner lining of the uterus thickens and gets filled with blood vessels. This is in readiness for receiving a fertilized ovum, which implants itself in and gets its nourishment from this lining during pregnancy. If the ovum is not fertilized, the lining of the uterus is not required. It is shed and bleeding, or monthly menstruation results. Menstruation usually lasts for 4-5 days.On an average the menstrual cycle is repeated every 28 days.Ovulation occurs on the 14th day prior to the expected menstrual period.
Menstruation is natural and part of being afemale. Having one’s first menstrual period can be an exciting event, especially if the girl knows what to expect. Menstruation is part of the body’s means of renewing itself and maintaining fertility. During menstruation a girl can generally engage in all of her regular activities. Bathing during menstruation is important. The vulva should be washed with water and mild soap to remove any blood that is left. How women take care of their menstrual flow varies in different settings. Many women use pads to absorb the blood. In some places, women buy pads that can be thrown away after use. In other places, they employ reusable pads made from folded cloth; these must be washed thoroughly after each use with soap and water. Having a private place to change or wash pads (both at home and at school) is important.Girls can use tampons when swimming.
Infants explore their bodies when resting, bathing or playing. Like any other body parts, they touch and play with genitals. Often adults reprimand infants with ‘no-no’, ‘shame-shame’, ‘dirty-dirty’. This is the beginning stage of forming negative attitudes towards one’s genitals and the surrounding area. Infants start developing feeling of shame, guilt and doubt, which are not necessary and are damaging to a healthy sexual identity.
Hormones are responsible for the development, maturation and function of the reproductive organs for boys and girls.
For the sperm and ovum to meet naturally, peno-vaginal intercourse has to occur. Sperm can be introduced into the female reproductive system by an erect penis. During sexual excitement, the arteries of the penis get enlarged allowing blood to rush into the spangle like tissues. Simultaneously, the veins get constricted, preventing the blood from the penis from escaping. Thus, the penis becomes erect for entering the vagina. Sperm from a recent ejaculation can be present in the pre-ejaculate. Following insertion of the penis into the vagina the stimulation caused by rhythmic movements of the penis results in the ejaculation of sperms. If there is no barrier from the sperm fertilizing the ovum, then pregnancy is possible.
How does pregnancy occur?
A woman who has ovulated several days after she has unprotected sex is likely to have sperm remaining in her cervix, and these sperm may still be able to reach the fallopian tube and fertilize the egg.
Once ovulation occurs, however, fertilization must occur within 24 hours because the egg can survive for only that long. Fertilization takes place in the fallopian tube. Once a sperm has fused with the egg it creates a barrier to other sperm. The fertilized egg continues down toward the uterus.
How can a woman tell if she is pregnant?
Pregnancy can be confirmed with a pregnancy test, which may be performed by a health care provider or purchased from a pharmacy. Some women who have learned how to detect when their body is ovulating can predict fairly well which day menstruation is due; therefore, they may be aware of a pregnancy as soon as their period is late.
Large breasts produce more milk than smaller ones. The breasts are basically made up of the fatty tissues, which determine the size of the breast and the milk glands, which secrete the milk for the newborn baby. Hence, the milk production is independent of the size of the breast.
Circumcision is the only way to keep the penis clean. Circumcision will not permit formation ofsmegma because the foreskin is removed. However, if a man is not circumcised he can keep himself clean by pulling back the foreskin and washing off the smegma underneath. Genital hygiene is important irrespective of whether or not the man is circumcised.
HIV/AIDS is a serious illness that slowly attacks and destroys the body’s immune system making it vulnerable to infections and cancers, which normally do not affect healthy people. AIDS is caused by a virus – HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). HIV weakens the body’s immune system, allowing infections and cancers to develop. HIV is spread when the blood, semen or vaginal fluids of an infected person come in contact with the blood or mucous membranes of a healthy uninfected person. This occurs during:
Signs and symptoms of AIDS
After HIV enters a person’s body, the person may show no signs and symptoms of AIDS for 5 to 10 years. As the person’s immune system starts failing, signs and symptoms of AIDS develops. These can be:
The AIDS test is a test for the presence of antibodies to HIV. It is therefore actually an HIV antibody test. After a person has been infected with HIV, it takes 3 to 5 months to develop antibodies to the virus. This is termed as window period. Hence a test taken during this window period of 3 to 5 months may show a false negative.
A person can get tested for HIV at any medical centre that provides these facilities. Testing should be carried out by trained medical and paramedical staff and the person should receive counseling both before and after the test. Without treatment it eventually leads to death.
Living with HIV and AIDS
All people have a right to know their own HIV status and to obtain confidential testing and counseling services. People living with HIV and AIDS have the right to live free of stigma and discrimination. Unfortunately, many times this right is not respected. For example: In some countries, people living with HIV or AIDS are barred from employment, housing, or other basic needs. Some women living with HIV or AIDS have been unjustly denied access to reproductive health services.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections passed primarily by sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse. A variety of different organisms may cause an STI. Certain parasites such as pubic lice and scabies also may be transmitted by sexual contact. Some STIs can be transmitted by skin-to-skin contact. Some are transmitted through the exchange of bodily fluids. Some can be passed to a baby before it is born, during childbirth, or via breastfeeding.
What are the consequences of STIs?
STIs can have serious health consequences for men and women. Many common STIs are difficult to detect among women, however, and some have more serious consequences for women than for men. For example, the spread of chlamydia or gonorrhea to the upper reproductive organs is a common cause of infertility among women. Infection with certain STIs increases the likelihood of acquiring or transmitting HIV infection. Some, but not all, STIs are curable. Others, such as HIV, are not. Early treatment eliminates or reduces the consequences of most STIs.
How to prevent STIs?
When should a person obtain an STI test?
A person is at risk of acquiring an STI and should be tested if he or she has one or more of the following:
Symptoms of an STI:
Early testing is important. A person diagnosed with an STI can obtain treatment and can help their recent partners to be tested as well. A couple should not resume sexual activity until both partners have been tested and have completed any necessary treatment. Because some STIs do not show up in test results right away, a repeat test may be necessary.
Why People put themselves at Risk for STI/Unplanned Pregnancy
Some people do not use protection because they lack information, skills, or basic access to services. For example:
Some people do not use protection because they have conflicting feelings about using or discussing condoms. For example:
Some people do not use protection because they are in circumstances of unequal social power, including gender inequality. For example:
Methods of protections against STIs and HIV
The surest way to prevent an STI is not to have vaginal, oral, or anal sex. Both partners can agree to engage in forms of sex (such as mutual masturbation) that do not carry the risk of infection transmission. Both partners can agree to use contraception: such as male or female condoms. Read on to find more ways to protect your self.
Couples who decide to delay having child or to space their children need to choose a method of contraception, which is best suited to their needs. A contraceptive method is a device or a drug used to prevent conception and pregnancy. Contraceptive methods fall in to 3 groups.
Natural method – total abstinence or refraining from sexual intercourse or non-penetrative sex; periodic abstinence or natural family planning; withdrawal methods
Temporary methods – barriers like male and female condom, diaphragm; spermicides such as tablets, cream, jelly, foam; intrauterine contraceptive device such as copper T; hormones like oral pills, injectables
Permanent or surgical – female sterilization; vasectomy for males
The pre-ejaculate does not have sperm in it, but it could pick up sperm from the urethra from previous ejaculation. If the man does not urinate before penetration, he could pass on sperm to the women before ejaculating. The withdrawal method has a much lower effectiveness as birth control than other methods of contraception.
Sexual Health and RTIs
Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are a general term for infections affecting the reproductive organs. RTIs have three main types of causes. Some RTIs are transmitted through sex. (In these cases, they are generally called sexually transmitted infections, or STIs.)Some RTIs result from an imbalance in the organisms normally present in the genital tract. This kind of RTI is far more common among women than among men. This type of RTI is sometimes caused by practices that are unnecessary (such as douching) or even harmful (such as inserting substances to dry the vagina), or as a side effect of using certain medications. Some RTIs are transmitted or spread by certain medical procedures and treatments. This kind of RTI is far more common among women than among men. This type of RTI can result from use of medical instruments that are not sterile (cleaned properly) or from pushing an existing infection farther
RTIs may cause such symptoms as itching and vaginal discharge. Many RTIs are easily treated and cured, especially if they are diagnosed early. If left untreated, some can have serious consequences, including infertility or even death (as in the case of pelvic inflammatory disease). Women are more likely than men to suffer serious consequences (including infertility) from a non-sexually transmitted RTI.